Medicine and its companion canvases, Philosophy and Jurisprudence, were shown together in 1943 at the Exhibition Hall Friedrichstrasse in Vienna in commemoration of eightieth anniversary of the artist's birth. Immediately following the show all three paintings were removed to the Schloss Immendorf in Lower Austria for safekeeping where they were destroyed when the castle was burned by retreating SS troops.
Klimt was commissioned in 1893 to decorate the ceiling of Great Hall in the University of Vienna with canvases representing the faculties of the university. When the radical canvases were displayed they were attacked as pornographic and decadent, and Klimt resigned from the commission. Medicine was exhibited in the tenth Secession Exhibition in March of 1901, and along with the Jurisprudence canvas, was purchased by Kalomon Moser in 1911.